CPR Adult / Child / Infant - Summary

Let's summarize the key concepts, which were introduced during the course and are important to know for the exam:

Emergency Action Principles

1.  Survey the Scene

2.  Perform a Primary Survey of the Victim

3.  Call Emergency Medical Services (EMS)

4.  Perform a Secondary Survey of the Victim

 Brain Death/Damage Timeline

Timeline for brain death/permanent damage after the heart has stopped beating:

0 to 4 minutes after exhibiting symptoms - Chances of Brain Damage Minimal

4 to 6 minutes after exhibiting symptoms - Chances of Brain Damage Possible

6 to 10 minutes after exhibiting symptoms - Chances of Brain Damage Likely

Greater than 10 minutes after exhibiting symptoms - Chances of Brain Death Likely

The following condition warrants immediate CPR: 1) Victim is unconscious; 2) Victim is not breathing; 3) Victim has no pulse

Before CPR

  • Ensure the victim and you are safe.
  • If adult call 911 before CPR, if child/infant initiate CPR and perform 5 reps, 30 compressions each, with 2 rescue breaths or 2 minutes of CPR, then call 911. 
  • Make certain you know where you are to help notify emergency services.


  • C-Compressions, after checking for pulse via carotid artery or brachial artery for infant, perform 30 compressions, interrupted by two mouth to mouth breaths, one second each; repeat until emergency services arrive
  • A-Airway, determine if the person is breathing and check for obstructions by opening airway;
  • B-Breathing, perform two mouth to mouth breaths 1 second each;
  • Recommended position for performing CPR is to have victim lying flat on his back.
  • Recommended rate for effective compressions for adult/child is 100 to 120 compressions per minute.
  • When performing compressions, make sure the chest returns to its original position.
  • When performing adult/child CPR the depth of the compressions should be at least 2 inches deep (but not greater than 2.4 inches)
  • When performing infant CPR, make sure your compressions are 1/3 to 1/2 the depth of the chest.
  • For child, depending on the size you can use one or two hands.
  • For infant, use two fingers.

 If not comfortable performing mouth to mouth, call 911, but at least administer external chest compressions until help arrives.